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What Exactly Is Fertility Counseling, Treatment, and Symptoms?

Counselling allows couples to address any emotional challenges, worries, or anxieties they may encounter toward becoming parents. As fertility treatment is multifaceted, counselling will enable couples to explore these issues. Couples who seek fertility counselling are allowed to discuss their concerns and emotions. It may also benefit couples by enabling them to comprehend the process, particularly at critical cycles, such as if the IVF treatment has so far been unsuccessful or in circumstances where it has succeeded, and they are finding it difficult to adjust to their new way of life.

The world needs skilled specialists like counsellors to help people through difficult emotional times. When a couple tries to have a child but cannot, they may feel infertility distress. There's a chance that a couple's close friends and family won't understand their pain or know how to help them deal with it. A fertility counsellor works with couples to assist them in making sense of the significant life changes they are experiencing.

When to seek fertility counselling

The following are the situations in which couples are most likely to seek fertility counselling:

  1. Before beginning any fertility therapy, you must come to terms with infertility and educate yourself on your treatment choices.

  2. After an unsuccessful IVF treatment, it is advisable to wait a few months before attempting to do so again. This provides an opportunity to take a break from the tension and gives the body a chance to heal.

  3. Adjusting to one's new role as a parent.

Is fertility counselling helpful?

HFEA is an independent agency formed by legislation to work on behalf of the government. Its official name is the Human Fertilization and Embryology Association. The Human Fertility and Embryology Authority (HFEA) believes that fertility counselling is an essential part of reproductive treatments for every patient. To follow the HFEA Act of 1990, both partners must go to counselling before therapy can start.

The consultant's needs, treatment plan, and recommendations will determine whether a couple can attend solo or group sessions. Couples can find fertility counsellors and support groups at clinics. These clinics are available for couples and offer assistance to married couples in locating a therapist who is a good match for their needs.

Reasons for Seeking Fertility Counseling

Both men and women may have issues that interfere with their ability to conceive children. Endometriosis, menstrual cycles that come and go or don't come at all, and damaged fallopian tubes are all common causes of infertility.

A low sperm count or poor sperm quality accounts for most male infertility cases. Other variables that have been demonstrated to affect a couple's fertility include the woman's age, the man's weight, the existence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), smoking, alcohol usage, and stress. It has also been proven that the following elements influence a couple's fertility:

The evaluation of infertility entails

An infertility assessment involves tests and exams to determine why you and your spouse can't conceive despite your best attempts. Depending on the reason, treatment may be a possibility. Even though the reason for infertility is unknown, it may be frequently addressed. Even when infertility's cause is unknown, this is true.

Ovulation disorders are the most curable cause of infertility in women. Male infertility is most often caused by sperm cells and how they reproduce. Age, lifestyle choices, and medical concerns might affect fertility.

There are some cases in which the reason for a couple's inability to conceive cannot be identified. This syndrome is referred to as "undiagnosed infertility" by medical professionals.

Types of male and female infertility

Infertility is the inability to conceive a child.

Infertility can take one of two forms:

Primary infertility is a condition that affects couples who have been sexually active for at least a year without using any birth control.

Secondary infertility is when a couple has been able to have children before but has trouble getting pregnant.


A wide variety of medical and psychological issues can cause infertility. Either the woman or the man could be at fault.

Infertility in Women

Causes of infertility in women include:

  • When an egg or embryo attaches to the uterine wall, it dies.

  • The lining of the uterus does not accept the fertilized egg.

  • In this scenario, the eggs are stuck in the ovaries and cannot reach the uterus.

  • As a result, the ovaries have trouble churning out robust egg batches.

Possible causes of infertility in women include:

  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder.

  • Malformations of the genitourinary system that occur at birth

  • Malignant growth or cancer

  • Blood Clotting Disorders

  • Diabetes; excessive alcohol consumption

  • Excessive exercise

  • Issues with eating habits or nutrition

  • Abnormalities in the uterus and cervix, including changes like fibroids and polyps

  • Medications, such as chemotherapy drugs,

  • Incorrect levels of hormones

  • A state of either extreme obesity or malnutrition

  • Later years

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian cysts (PCOS)

  • Inflammatory bowel disease of the pelvis (IBD) or a pelvic infection that causes scarring or swelling of the fallopian tubes (hydrosalpinx) (PID)

  • Sexually transmitted disease scars, scars from abdominal surgery, and endometriosis scars

  • Smoking

  • Pregnancy can be avoided in several ways, but one of the most common is tubal ligation, in which the tubes are surgically tied off.

  • Illnesses related to the thyroid

Infertility in Men

Some potential causes of male infertility are:

  • Reduced sperm count

  • An obstruction that prevents sperm from exiting the reproductive system

  • Sperm abnormalities

Reasons for male infertility include:

  • Problems at conception

  • Radiation and chemotherapy are two common cancer treatments.

  • Prolonged exposure to intense heat

  • Extreme consumption of cannabis, coke, or alcohol

  • imbalance of hormones

  • Impotence

  • Infection

  • Meds like cimetidine, spironolactone, and nitrofurantoin

  • Obesity

  • Later years

  • Ejaculating backwards

  • Scarring due to a genital herpes infection, a severe burn, or major surgery

  • Smoking

  • Caused by environmental toxins. Vasectomy or unsuccessful vasectomy reversal

  • Infection of the testicles by measles

Every month, a healthy couple under the age of 30 who has sex has a roughly 20% chance of becoming pregnant.

Fertility peaks in a woman's early 20s. Once a woman reaches age 35, her fertility begins to decline (especially after age 40)—fertility declines for different women at different ages.

After age 35, the likelihood of having fertility issues or experiencing a miscarriage increases dramatically. Women in their twenties can now undergo egg retrieval and storage procedures. If pregnancy is postponed until after age 35, this increases the likelihood of a healthy outcome. This alternative does not come cheap. It may be an option for women who know they must postpone having children.

The relationship between infertility and depression

Infertility is a medical ailment, yet many individuals who struggle with it feel ashamed and keep it a secret. Infertility is a medical issue. It may be hard to ask friends and relatives for help. It's easy to feel disappointed and frustrated if you can't become pregnant after trying for a long time, especially if you don't have family support.

Figure 4: Photo by Fernando @cferdophotographyon Unsplash

Depression sufferers are less likely to seek infertility therapy, according to a reliable source. Similarly, many infertile couples can have children after having IVF. On the other side, many people dispute the treatment's feasibility, which might harm their mental health.

People who have trouble getting pregnant are more likely to become depressed for several reasons, some of which are:


The difficulty of conceiving a child can be a source of significant emotional strain. Even though there is not enough evidence to establish a causal connection between stress and infertility, some research suggests that stress may affect a woman's chance of becoming pregnant.

Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), can affect a couple's ability to have children, which can also increase the likelihood of developing depression. Compared to people who do not have PCOS, those who do have it may be three times as likely to develop depression and anxiety, according to one study.

The therapy may put you through some mental and physically challenging experiences. During a 2014 investigation, women seeking infertility therapy or fertility preservation reported increasing worry and depression. This is what women who were trying to get pregnant or looking for ways to keep getting pregnant found.

The effects of administering the therapy; according to the findings of investigations by Trustworthy Source, several different fertility treatments contain substances that can change a person's mood, which increases the chance of the individual developing depression due to the therapy.


It is not unheard of to experience feelings of melancholy or even depression on occasion. However, if these emotions persist over time and negatively impact daily functioning, a person may be depressed.

When present on a daily basis for at least two weeks, the following symptoms increase the likelihood that a person is depressed:

  • Melancholy, emptiness, despair

  • Distressing feelings of nervousness, irritation, agitation, or frustration

  • A lack of interest in most activities, including ones that they usually love; feelings of worthlessness, remorse, or humiliation; low energy levels or exhaustion

  • A sense of being worthless, guilty, or humiliated; unexpected changes in food or weight; difficulties sleeping more or less than usual; difficulty thinking clearly or focusing; Unexplained aches, pains, and other physical symptoms

  • Feelings of hopelessness or suicidal ideation

A primary care doctor may recommend therapy to help patients understand and treat depression. A fertility counsellor can help a person who is worried about their fertility.


Antidepressants are one type of drug that can be used to treat depression. These drugs are easy to get today.

Categories of antidepressants


Medications include serotonin modulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).


For some patients, they are finding an effective drug may require trying several different options before they settle on one. You must be truthful with your doctor about any adverse effects you may be experiencing while taking a medicine, as the physician may be able to adjust the dosage or alter the prescription entirely.

Talk Therapy:

Another therapeutic approach for treating depressive disorders is talk therapy. It may provide a forum for discussing infertile feelings, setting goals, and improving connections, if needed. Infertile couples may benefit from couple counselling.

Therapy and medication may work best. Eating a nutrient-dense diet and staying physically active regularly are also critical.

It's easy to understand why people with fertility challenges focus on bringing a baby to term. Other areas of the relationship may suffer from the focus on one subject. Some married couples think beginning a new hobby or interest together might benefit their relationship.


Infertility affects people physically and emotionally. Similarly, no matter how you address the issue, you must keep in mind that you are not alone and that assistance is available. Keep moving, keep talking, and take care of your body and mind. Even though infertility is widespread, it can make a person feel completely alone.

A trusted source of females between the ages of 15 and 44 who are trying to conceive or carrying a pregnancy to term report having difficulty doing so. However, after receiving treatment, many people have healthy pregnancies and deliveries. Men and women tend to react to the experience of infertility in very different ways. Traditionally, women have believed that men can better cope with the issue of infertility. Still, the reality is that men are simply less likely to open up about their emotions.

It might be helpful to seek support from other individuals who have gone through something similar. They can help people deal with stress, keep healthy relationships, and know they are not the only ones going through hard times.

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